Oil and gas well test automation acquisition system technology
First, the proposal of the program
1.1. Program background
The construction process and environment are sudden and there are potential safety hazards.
The construction decision command puts forward higher real-time requirements on the data and on-site conditions.
Automation and informationization requirements for data analysis and management.
1.2. Program benefit
Conducive to the safety of field workers. By concentrating all construction data and on-site video in the data room, it is possible to prevent field workers from frequently entering and leaving the construction area, making the workers more secure;
Conducive to construction safety. The pressure can be observed in real time and the sudden change of pressure and the running state of the equipment can help to prevent accidents and deal with accidents in the first time, and ensure the safety of the whole test construction. The system is stable and reliable, adapting to the harsh construction site environment;
Conducive to data accuracy. Due to the use of automated acquisition, some human error can be avoided, and accurate parameter basis can be improved for subsequent reservoir analysis.
Conducive to command decision. By combining data acquisition and real-time data analysis, it is possible to observe pressure history changes and forecast production in a timely manner, which is conducive to on-site operators and managers to quickly judge the formation conditions, optimize the discharge method, and rationally adjust the test work system.
Conducive to operational use. It adopts advanced and mature wireless data communication technology and friendly human-machine interface interface, which is convenient for installation, operation, operation and system maintenance.
Second, ground data collection
2.1. System Overview
The ground data acquisition system automatically collects parameters such as pressure, temperature, flow rate, and various liquid discharges in each process of the oil and gas well test operation, and calculates daily natural gas production, natural gas unimpeded flow, flow pressure, formation pressure and other parameters according to the collected data. It provides theoretical basis for oil and gas well test construction results. The collection and calculation results provide various display modes such as data list and curve, and provide functions such as signal mutation, over-limit sound and light alarm, record storage, and customizable report curve printing.
The system also provides real-time analysis and collection of the hydrogen sulfide content and flammable gas content in the field environment. It provides the sound and light alarm function of hydrogen sulfide and flammable gas content, which provides reliable guarantee for construction safety and on-site personnel safety.
The system adopts advanced wireless sensor network technology to avoid cumbersome installation and deployment and system maintenance workload, and effectively solve various hidden troubles caused by wired connections.
2.2. advanced technology
The system adopts advanced and mature wireless sensor network technology and the first professional oil and gas well test flow configuration technology in China, which provides guarantee for high efficiency and high reliability of the system.
2.3.1. Wireless sensor network technology
Using advanced sensor network technology, ultra-low power circuit design provides system operation, deployment, operation and maintenance workload while providing system stability, security and scalability, which is convenient for users. Therefore, the various drawbacks of the traditional wired connection data acquisition system are effectively solved, and the performance is better.
The technical features are as follows:
Adopt advanced and mature sensor network technology to avoid the cumbersome signal cable connection on site, reduce the huge workload caused by signal cable and the various hidden troubles caused by it;
Provide extended wireless pressure sensor to expand one-way temperature sensor input interface, provide pressure and temperature signal detection at the same position of pipeline, and minimize system investment cost;
The sensor is equipped with anti-explosion, anti-sulfur, waterproof and dustproof performance to meet various harsh on-site construction environment requirements;
Realize on-site network coverage of any environment and any construction scale, and meet the monitoring requirements of construction data of any construction well site;
Ultra-low-power design of sensor terminals, all wireless sensor devices have built-in rechargeable large-capacity lithium battery packs, which meet the requirements of continuous and uninterrupted monitoring for any long-term construction. The system acquisition interval is set in seconds, and the terminal interval is 5 seconds. Working hours are not less than 15 working days.
2.3.2. Construction process configuration technology
The first domestic professional configuration software technology for oil and gas testing construction process uses the WYSIWYG method for interface and measuring point layout. The operation display is friendly and intuitive, and the test discharge line is automatically identified and displayed with eye-catching signs. The technical features are as follows:
Professional software that is closely integrated with oil and gas well testing and construction operations;
Flexible graphic configuration technology to adapt to the data monitoring of any construction process scale;
The data is abrupt, the data exceeds the limit sound and light alarm, the alarm log is recorded, and the alarm event is provided afterwards;
The automatic correlation of the discharge line is associated with the eye-catching display, and the human-machine interface is friendly and intuitive;
The sensor battery power detection alarm prompts the operator to perform battery replacement.
2.4. Wellsite inspection function
In order to strengthen the wellsite inspection management, the system integrates the patrol function. According to the long-term system experience, the general pressure sensor installation points are the places of concern during the wellsite inspection. In order to facilitate system installation and deployment, operation and use, and information point name matching, the system will implement patrol function and patrol information points and pressure changes. Transmitter terminal integration (other terminals such as hydrogen sulfide monitoring terminal, natural gas monitoring terminal can be optionally integrated), and provide patrol data through the wireless upload monitoring host of the signal transmitter terminal
The patrol function is integrated in the transmitter terminal in the form of a function module, which can be selected as needed;
The patrol data records the patrol time, the patrol self-test table, the patrol point, the patrol point status, the corrective measures under abnormal conditions, the patrol point picture data, and the like;
For the abnormal situation patrol point, it is required to obtain an abnormal condition photo through the camera, and the collecting system provides the import function of the photo data when recording the patrol data;
2.5. Wireless remote transmission function
The system can be equipped with wireless remote transmission function. If wireless remote transmission function is selected, the system will integrate GPRS/CDMA wireless remote transmission module. For convenient transportation and carrying, the wireless remote transmission module will be integrated in the wireless sensor network communication server to USB/ RS232 interfaces with the acquisition host for remote transmission of data.
The communication server integrates GPRS and CDMA wireless network transmission modules, and the system can automatically identify the on-site network signals and switch between GPRS and CDMA to ensure remote transmission network connection;
The system provides the IP address mode and the domain name mode to implement TCP/IP remote connection according to the specified port;
The data transmission content includes the system collecting data in real time, patrolling management information and the like;
The data acquisition system performs handshake communication in accordance with the "Dynamic Transmission Communication Agreement for Oil and Gas Well Construction Operations".
2.6. Explosion-proof and anti-interference
2.6.1. Explosion-proof treatment
In process measurement and automation control systems such as petroleum and chemical industry, potentially explosive environments may occur. In practical applications, designers must take appropriate explosion-proof measures for field devices and related equipment in the system.
All sensor terminals on the system site are implemented by wireless sensor network technology. There is no cable connection between sensors and sensors and monitoring center equipment. Based on this, the explosion-proof treatment of the field equipment is realized by the explosion-proof method. The sensor circuit adopts battery-powered ultra-low power design, which effectively avoids large current and high power heating inside the circuit. The sensor terminal is fully encapsulated in an explosion-proof enclosure with an explosion-proof rating of not less than Exd IIBT4, thus achieving the purpose of explosion protection of field devices.
2.6.2. Wireless explosion protection
Radio waves are ubiquitous. As radio waves themselves, they will not become explosion sources in explosive environments. Often wireless receivers are sparked due to aging of internal circuits, circuit connections, and unreliable battery contacts. When the operating current reaches a certain level, sparks are generated. Become a source of explosion.
The state stipulates that the ban of wireless devices in potential explosive environments, such as gas stations, is based on 20 watts of power, and is mainly for electronic devices such as mobile phones that have key operations and are prone to electronic friction.
The system sensor terminal circuit in the scheme is low-power design, and provides any line short-circuit fault protection function, completely discharging the circuit to generate sparks. At the same time, the sensor enclosure is explosion-proof and fully sealed, which further guarantees the explosion-proof performance of the equipment. During the installation and testing process, the field device does not have any electromechanical action or operation, and does not have any cable connection with other devices, thereby eliminating the possibility of explosion caused by the operation of the device.
If the on-site air is too dry, it is easy to form static electricity accumulation in the equipment casing and cause static spark. This phenomenon may exist in any connection field device, which requires good grounding during installation and deployment, making the housing static electricity effective. Release, all the sensors we provide have special ground connection terminals, which are convenient for grounding in the case of a suspended connection line. At the same time, since the all-metal casing is connected to the test pipeline, the static electricity accumulated in the casing can be effectively discharged by grounding through the discharge pipes.
2.6.3. Wireless anti-interference
The wireless sensor network works in the 2.4G frequency band, and does not interfere with the common working frequency band of other radio equipment (such as walkie-talkie) in the field. At the same time, when the sensor network is established, it will automatically analyze the environment of the environment, and choose the most suitable. The signal transmission channel (up to 12 channel selections) establishes a transmission network connection.
At the same time, in the processing of software, we provide an effective data verification retransmission mechanism to ensure the absolute accuracy of data transmission. The data collection frequency is set in seconds, which ensures data preparation and real-time performance.